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Accessibility Techniques

Detailed guidelines with explanations and examples.

Structure and Presentation :

Metadata :

  • Use appropriate metadata to add semantic information.
  • Avoid auto-refresh and auto-redirect because it confuses users.
  • Identifies a document's location if part of a collection.

Tables :

  • avoid the use of tables for layout.

If you use table for layout...

  • create tables that transform gracefully.
  • label data table content appropriately, identify row and column headers and associate data cells and header cells.

Frames :

  • avoid frames.

If you use frames...

  • provide titles for frames and frameset.
  • describe frame relationships.
  • provide an alternative for browsers that do not support frames.

Graphics :

  • keep number of graphics limited.
  • provide text alternatives for images.
  • provide alternatives text links for clickable regions in images maps.
  • provide client-side instead of server-side image maps.
  • avoid animations.
  • avoid flickering screens.

Colour :

  • use browser safe colours.
  • do not rely on colour alone to convey information.
  • use an unobtrusive background.
  • use contrasting colours for text and links.
  • use icons to provide contextual clues and easy recognition.

Dynamic content & multimedia :

  • provide text alternatives for audio and video.
  • make sure the site is script independent or provide alternatives.
  • provide equivalents for dynamic content and ensure they are updated when dynamic content changes.
  • avoid scrolling, blinking or flashing text and flickering screens and make moving content stoppable.

Content and language (Writing for the Web) :

  • use clear and jargon-free language.
  • identify language changes.
  • label abbreviations and acronyms.

Layout and navigation / Usability :

  • provide consistency in style, layout and navigation
  • stick to known conventions.

Alternative input and output :

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