DEMOS Project

Online Materials for Staff Disability Awareness

Disability Awareness

Date of completion: December 2002. (Updated: February 2003)
Author: Mike Wray, Project Coordinator, DEMOS Project.
Published by: Demos Project.
Responsible Organisation: Manchester Metropolitan University.
Contact: Learning Support Unit, All Saints, Manchester, M15 6BH.

Table of Contents


Aims and Learning Outcomes


Learning Outcomes

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The hard reality is this. Society in every nation is still infected by the ancient assumption that people with disabilities are less than fully human and therefore, are not fully eligible for the opportunities which are available to other people as a matter of right.

Justin Dart, Disability Rights Activist, 1992 ( [External link: Open in new browser window]

Changing attitudes to disability

Individual attitudes towards disabled people and society's response to disability have changed throughout history. In recent times the process of social change has culminated in the disability rights movement. In the UK pressure from groups of disabled people has resulted in legislative changes such as the Disability Discrimination Act (1995) which should lead to more equitable participation for disabled people.

However, despite recent changes to legislation, disabled people are statistically less likely to hold a degree qualification, to be in employment or to own their own home.


Many people are worried about meeting and working with disabled students. Typical questions include:

My class teacher hadn't worked with someone with an hearing impairment before and didn't know how to speak. She didn't know how to talk to me and didn't know what to tell the children.

Helen, 2nd year, BEd

Growth in the number of disabled people entering higher education and recent changes to legislation mean that university staff are likely to encounter disabled students on a more regular basis, so it is important that they feel comfortable when meeting them.

This module will explore some of the context behind current approaches to disability in higher education and give you a basic understanding of the disability rights agenda.

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Brief history of modern approaches to disability

The beginnings of segregation

Modern approaches to dealing with disability stem from the rise of the industrial revolution in the late 18th century. Production moved away from the agricultural and home economies in which disabled people could be supported, to industries such as mining and cotton which required a more efficient, complex level of work from employees.

Due to the passing of the Poor Law Amendment Act (1834), those who were unable to work and were unable to support themselves usually became the responsibility of the state. The solution was to house many people in institutions and the 19th century saw the rise of workhouses and asylums.

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Towards inclusion?

It was many decades before any large-scale moves were made towards granting all disabled people a place back in mainstream society. The sixties and seventies saw a move towards community care but this was still seen as institutionalised with the interests of the professional in mind rather than the people in care.

During the seventies and eighties several reports and acts on segregated care and education for disabled people were published e.g. the Warnock Report (1978) on special educational needs and the Jay report (1979) on mental handicap (sic) nursing. At the same time there was a political movement that arose amongst disabled people who formed organisations such as the Union of Physically Impaired Against Segregation (UPIAS).


In the UK the Disability Discrimination Act became law in 1995 and the act was extended to include all aspects of education in the Special Educational Needs and Disability Act (2001).

Similar legislation that focuses on the rights of disabled people has been passed in other countries - e.g. the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Australian Disability Act. HEIs in the UK might learn from the experiences in these countries when planning provision. (See: [External link: Open in new browser window]

Although legislation has sought to increase the participation of disabled people into mainstream activities of society it is claimed by many disabled activists and disabled people's groups that the inclusivity and full citizenship for disabled people has not yet been achieved.

If you would like to view a selection of readings from disability writers see: [External link: Open in new browser window]

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Images of disability

As a society we are not especially inclusive. Until recently, the compulsory sector of education was organised around a system that segregated learners according to the nature of their impairment and sent them to special schools. The impact of segregated schooling was that at an important, formative stage in life, the majority of people did not encounter anyone with a disability. Since personal experience is lacking, information about disabilities comes via the mass media, whose portrayal of people with disabilities varies between a focus on the medical aspects of the impairment to the 'super crip' and the 'triumph over tragedy'.

Hurst & McCarthy (2001) (
[External link: Open in new browser window]

Most people will have had little experience on a day-to-day basis of meeting disabled people. As the quote above suggests, the images we form about disabled people can be limited and based on other experiences such as their portrayal through mass media, particularly TV and film.

Colin Barnes (1992) has also written on this subject and defined the portrayals in mass media of disabled people into ten categories:

...this guy came up to me... We were having a perfectly normal conversation about my job as Disabilities Officer and the comment, 'So sex is out of the question?' came into the equation, which just completely threw me. People, for some reason think that when you are disabled you are desperate for sex...

Anna, 3rd year, Applied Community Studies

Obvious examples from traditional sources include Shakespeare's Richard III, the Hunchback of Notre Dame and Long John Silver from Treasure Island. However, more recent portrayals in the media reinforce these stereotypical categories. People with mobility impairments have featured in at least three UK TV soap operas since the nineties- e.g. Jim in Coronation Street, Chris Tate in Emmerdale and Nick Cotton in Eastenders.
In two of these examples the characters have been portrayed at some stage as 'sinister and evil' (Nick Cotton and Chris Tate) and in the third as 'their own worst enemy' (Jim, Coronation Street).

Images of disability - Learning Activity

Using the ten categories described by Barnes think about the following media characters or portrayals of disability:

Which categories do you think these fit into?

If you are not familiar with any of the above mentioned characters or portrayals of disability think of one of your own examples or the next time you come across a portrayal of disability in popular culture examine whether the character fits any of the categories.

Further links of interest:

Ouch: the BBC's new website specifically related to disability [External link: Open in new browser window]
Mental Health Media awards [External link: Open in new browser window]
WHO Photography competition [External link: Open in new browser window]

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Models of disability

Fundamental to an awareness of disability is the discussion regarding two models of disability - the social model and medical model. Michael Oliver, a well known researcher/writer and campaigner in the field, has provided succinct descriptions:

The social model describes disability as...

...all the things that impose restrictions on disabled people; ranging from individual prejudice to institutional discrimination, from inaccessible public buildings to unusable transport systems, from segregated education to excluding work arrangements, and so on.

The social model has been developed in the context of disabled people forming groups and representative bodies and campaigning for change. The focus is on society to change policy, attitudes and economic discrimination against disabled people.

In contrast the medical model...

... locates the 'problem' of disability within the individual and secondly it sees the causes of this problem as stemming from the functional limitations or psychological losses which are assumed to arise from disability.

The medical model has also been called the individual model as it places the emphasis on the individual's response to impairment.

Further information

Mini-animated guide to Social vs. Medical model

Self Direction Project
[External link: Open in new browser window]

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Institutional Models

There was a certain amount of 'Well I'll cope with it,' because it's only since I've come to university that we've got disability rights and we must have access and all the rest of it. Before it had been a case of, 'You will just cope with it,' and apparently, well I know there was a lift actually put in once they knew I was coming...

Anna, 3 year, BA, Applied Community Studies

In the institutional context of a university how might these two models manifest themselves in the way the institution responds to disability? We have provided a table which examines how two theoretical universities respond to this issue in the context of teaching disabled students.

This table shows how two theoretical universities might respond to issues in the context of teaching disabled students.
Type of university Who is responsible for creating access to the curriculum? How are arrangements for the assessment of disabled students dealt with? Who deals with policy? How is disability approached?
Social model university (Student A) Academic tutors, course designers, curriculum development teams. Considered at course validation stage. Written into examination policy and design of assessment methodology of each course. Teaching and Learning committees, Academic Board. Looks at categories of support, e.g. provision of accessible materials, screenreaders available on all university PCs.
Medical model university (Student B) Medical services, rehabilitation services, disability office, the student. Separate policy, individuals apply for alternative arrangments as need arises. Disability committee, central administrators. In terms of impairment e.g. dyslexia, visual impairment, hearing impairment.

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The language we use to talk about disability plays an extremely important part in the way society views disabled people. This is often a confusing area since people who are not disabled themselves feel worried about offending one particular group of people by using the wrong term and the terminology adopted by disabled people often changes.

There is not universal agreement on how to describe disabled people since disabled people themselves often disagree on the 'best' term. However, we offer a list of the most generally accepted terms in the table below.

Suggested terminology when referring to disability

This table lists accepted and not accepted terminology when referring to disability.
Accepted usage Do not use
Try to include the person in the term used i.e. person who is blind; deaf people. The disabled, the blind. Suffering from... afflicted by...
Disabled people/students. The disabled. Also, in the UK there is a move away from using 'students with disabilities' by proponents of the social model.
Deaf people/students. Hard of hearing - referring to people with mild to moderate hearing loss. The deaf. Deaf and dumb. Also, the deaf community tend not to use the term 'hearing impaired'.
Wheelchair user. Person with a mobility impairment. Wheelchair bound. Crippled. Handicapped. Mobility impaired.
Blind person. Partially sighted. The blind.
Non-disabled. Able bodied.
Student with dyslexia. Students with specific learning difficulties (which includes dyslexia, dyspraxia etc.) Word blind.
Person with mental health difficulties. Mad, crazy, bonkers etc.
Accessible toilet. Disabled toilet.
Person of restricted growth. Dwarf, midget.

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There have been various attempts at defining disability. An understanding of the development of these definitions also underpins some of the thinking about the two models of disability mentioned before.

World Health Organisation (WHO)

In 1980 the WHO commissioned Philip Wood to devise a classification system for disability. The resulting definitions are shown below:

any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological or anatomical structure or function.
any restriction or lack (resulting from an impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being.
a disadvantage for a given individual, resulting from an impairment or disability, that limits or prevents the fulfilment of a role that is normal (depending on age, sex and social and cultural factors) for that individual.

Barnes et al (1999) are amongst the critics of this definition; they make several points including:

The WHO is considering releasing a second version of this definition which include a fourth category of environmental effects. However, disabled people's groups and disability activists say that the definition needs completely rewriting.

Union of Physically Impaired Against Segregation

Disabled people's organisations have suggested alternative definitions. The one that is most relevant to today's usages in the UK is that put forward by the Union of Physically Impaired Against Segregation (UPIAS).

The UPIAS defined impairment as:

lacking all or part of a limb or having a defective limb, organism or mechanism of the body.

(The definition is limited to physical impairments because that was the focus of the organisation at the time.)

More importantly it changes the focus of definitions of disability away from the individual.

Disability is defined as:

the disadvantage or restriction caused by a contemporary social organisation which takes no or little account of people who have physical impairments and thus excludes them from the mainstream of social activities.

Therefore disabled people are people with impairments who are disabled by barriers in society.

The central theme of the definition that disability is external to the individual and is a result of environmental and social factors, has been widely accepted by organisations representing disabled people and forms the backbone of the social model of disability.

Universities and Colleges Admissions Service

Interestingly the system that is used within higher education for collecting statistics and categorising disabled students uses impairment as its focus. The system has been adopted from the UCAS application forms on which applicants are asked to give information relating to disability, special needs or medical condition. 10 categories are used to describe students and applicants, these are:

0. None.
1. You have dyslexia.
2. You are blind or partially sighted.
3. You are deaf or hearing impaired.
4. You use a wheelchair or have mobility difficulties.
5. You need personal care or assistance.
6. You have mental health difficulties.
7. You have a disability that cannot be seen for example diabetes, epilepsy or a heart condition.
8. You have two or more of the above.
9. You have a disability, special need or medical condition that is not listed.

For more information about this system and a learning activity that examines this issue from a social model perspective see our admissions module.

I think at that stage I made it very, very clear what my disability was. I made that very clear at the interview. But I don't think they actually realised the extent of it. I wasn't told what that kind of support that would be or the extent of it.

Monica, 3rd year, deaf student

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Disability Statistics - UK population

There have been a variety of efforts to provide reliable statistics on the number of disabled people in the population.

Labour Force Survey [External link: Open in new browser window]

Most recently undertaken in the summer of 2001.
6.7 million people of working age are disabled.

OPCS [External link: Open in new browser window]

Carried out between 1985 and 1988 this was the last survey that specifically attempted to determine the number of disabled adults in the UK population.

It was estimated that 6.2 million adults in the UK are disabled which at the time of the survey represented 14.2% of the adult population.

This survey has been criticised by disabled people because it relies on definitions of disability which focus on impairment and the limitations of individuals rather than the limitations placed on them by society. Oliver (1990) have proposed alternative questions that could be used if information was collected using the social model of disability.

Number of people with visual impairment [External link: Open in new browser window]

These figures have been collated by the RNIB using national surveys such as the Labour Force Survey and local authority registers. It was estimated in 1996 that there were approximately one million people who are registerable as blind or partially sighted.

Number of people with hearing impairment [External link: Open in new browser window]

It is estimated that there are 8.7 million people with hearing impairment in the UK.

Further Reading

The National Statistics Online website contains a comprehensive database of statistical resources about all aspects of the UK population and disability : [External link: Open in new browser window]

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Disability Statistics - Education

Statistics on disabled students in higher education are available from two main sources:

Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS)

We have provided a table of the number of UK domiciled applicants through UCAS in the cycle 2000/01 in the Admissions module.

Higher Education Statistics Agency

Statistics tables on disability can be found at the HESA website ( [External link: Open in new browser window] ). We have collated the figures on first year UK students for 1993 - 2000 in the appendix.

Other links

Scottish report commissioned by the Disability Rights Commission: (PDF file).

Analysis of HESA statistics on disability: (PDF file).

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Support for disabled students in HE

It is important that a brief introduction to support in universities is discussed so that the context around disability is understood. We have given a brief introduction to support that is usually available in HEIs in the UK.

National Policies

Until the 1990s there was little national coordination of efforts to increase access to higher education for disabled students. However, more recently the HEFCE has funded several initiatives ( [External link: Open in new browser window] that sought to improve support for students. Also, the QAA have published a series of documents ( [External link: Open in new browser window] that are to be used in future institutional audits within HEIs and one of these focuses specifically on students with disabilities.

In September 2002 the Disability Discrimination Act was extended to cover provision for disabled students within education. Previously HEIs were only expected to produce disability statements [?]. The Special Educational Needs and Disability Act places HEIs under a legal obligation to provide reasonable adjustments for disabled students and to ensure they are not discriminated against. This is a very important piece of legislation and it is thought that it will lead to much more inclusive teaching methods in higher education.

Detailed information about this topic can be found in the SENDA module.

Local Policies

Many universities have local policies or guidelines already in place for specific aspects of the university environment such as assessment and examination procedures and admissions policies.

Support for disabled students is often coordinated by a specialist unit within a HEI usually called the disability office. They can provide students with advice on claiming additional monies to help with their support needs, provide academic staff with advice on inclusive teaching and learning and arrange additional support such as dyslexia tutors.

Some universities may organise these services within learning support units. These offices take a generic approach to supporting all students who may have some difficulties with study for whatever reason.

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Inclusive curriculum (accessibility audit of learning)

With the introduction of SENDA and other developments within HE such as widening participation, attention is being increasingly focused on the teaching environment and its accessibility for disabled students. To help academic staff review there approach to the question of disability two notable tools have been developed:

SWANDS: Audit tool for SENDA compliance [External link: Open in new browser window]
Teachability [External link: Open in new browser window]

Universal design [?] has been proposed as the way forward since it encompasses the idea that changes made to the environment can be helpful to all users and that design of products should try to meet the needs of as broad a range of people as possible. There are many groups of students in HE who might require special consideration in the teaching process and true inclusivity should be considered for all learners.

At the moment, they need to be aware about deaf people. Especially in the course I'm on, they need to be aware anyway... I've had no problem with any of the teachers in the past, so up to now I am quite happy with their support which is given to me and their patience. After all, it depends on how hard you are prepared to work to receive what you want to get.

Lee, 1st year, Media and Performance

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Inclusive design of the environment (accessibility audit of buildings etc.)

People are more used to thinking about how disabled people access buildings. This is obviously an important consideration for universities. If disabled students cannot get in the building in the first place they cannot access the teaching. However, accessibility is more than just providing ramps into buildings. There are many other considerations and improvements can be made to buildings which are of benefit to other groups of students other than those with mobility impairments e.g.:

Further Information

The best place to start researching issues relating to accessible building design is the Centre for Accessible Environments: [External link: Open in new browser window]

Manchester City Council action plan on access plus a guide to producing an accessible environment: [External link: Open in new browser window]

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For Universities

In 2000/01 HEFCE introduced mainstream disability funding for supporting disabled students.

The allocation is based on the number of disabled students who have claimed DSAs within your institution and is part of the total mainstream funding that your HEI receives from HEFCE. (HEFCE circular [External link: Open in new browser window] )

The funding is not ring-fenced but universities are advised to achieve at least base level provision ( [External link: Open in new browser window] for disabled students.

For students

Most groups of disabled students are now eligible to claim additional allowances to support them in higher education. These are known as the disabled students' allowances (DSAs).

DSAs comprise of:

Before students can claim these allowances they must provide proof of their disability and will undergo an in depth assessment (usually by staff from an Access Centre ( [External link: Open in new browser window] ) to identify how they can be best supported.

Learning Activity

What sources of help are available in your institution?

We have provided links and contact details to the Disability Services of the Demos Universities on the Contacts page.

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[Note: This quiz does not work in the print version. Answers are given below. If you would like to take this interactive test, please go to this page.]

Modern approaches to disability can be traced back to:

Egyptian mythology.
The period between the two world wars.
The industrial revolution.
Darwin's theory of evolution.

More recently society's response to disability has been influenced by:

The Welfare State.
The disabled students allowances.
A shortage of staff in the NHS.
Groups of disabled people.

UPIAS stands for:

United Peoples In Action for Society.
Union of Physically Impaired Against Segregation.
University of Portsmouth Inclusive Access Services.
Unify People In Access to Society.

How many categories of portrayals of disabled people in the media have been identified by Colin Barnes?

an infinite number

One of the key aspects of the social model of disability is that it focuses:

...on the personal relationships that disabled students are involved in.
...on the barriers in society that disable people with impairments.
...on medical interventions that alleviate the effects of impairment.
...on individual's experiences of disability.

In the UCAS classification system code 3 refers to which group of students?

You are deaf or hearing impaired.
You use a wheelchair or have mobility difficulties.
You need personal care or assistance.

According to HESA statistics what percentage of 1st year UK domiciled students were disabled in the academic year 2000/01?


Which organisation has published a code of practice for supporting students with disabilities?

The National Disability Team

An inclusive curriculum might consider which principle?

The medical model of disability.
An audit of university buildings.
Universal design.
Assessment of support needs.

Universities are able to pay for support for disabled students through:

Disabilty funding.
Ring-fenced funding.
Disabled Students Allowances.
Access funds.


  1. The industrial revolution.
  2. Groups of disabled people.
  3. Union of Physically Impaired Against Segregation.
  4. 10
  5. ...on the barriers in society that disable people with impairments.
  6. You are deaf or hearing impaired.
  7. 4.1%
  8. QAA
  9. Universal design.
  10. Premium funding.

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References and further reading


Barnes, C. (1992) Disabling Imagery and the Media. The British Council of Organisations of Disabled People, Ryburn Publishing, Halifax, UK.

Barnes, C., Mercer, G. and Shakespeare, T. (1999) Exploring Disability: A Sociological Introduction. Blackwell, Oxford.

Department of Health and Social Security (1979) Report of the Committee of Enquiry into mental handicap Nursing and care (Report of committee chaired by Mrs. Peggy Jay). HMSO, London.

Hurst, A. & McCarthy, D. (2001) A Briefing on Assessing Disabled Students. Learning and Teaching Subject Network Generic Centre, York.

Oliver, M. (1990) The Politics of Disablement. Macmillan, Basingstoke.

Martin, J., Meltzer, H. and Elliot, D. (1998) OPCS Surveys of Disability in Great Britain: Report 1 - The Prevalence of Disability Amongst Adults. HMSO, London.

Warnock, M. (1978) Report of the Committee of Enquiry in to the Education of Handicapped Children and Young People. HMSO, London.

Wood, P. (1980) International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps (ICIDH), World Health Organisation, Geneva.

Further reading

DfES (2002) Bridging the Gap: A Guide to the Disabled Students Allowances (DSAs) in Higher Education in 2002/2003. DfES, London.

Karpf, A (1988) Doctoring the Media: The Reporting of Health and Medicine. Routledge, London.

Melling, J & Forsythe, B. (1999) Insanity, Institutions and Society, 1800-1914 - A Social History of Madness in Comparative Perspective. Routledge, London.

Pointon, A. & Davies, C. (eds.)(1997) Framed: Interrogating Disability in the Media. British Film Industry Publishing, London.

Potts, M. & Fido, R. (1991) 'A Fit Person to be Removed' - Personal Accounts of Life in a Mental Deficiency Institution. Northcote House Publishing, Plymouth.

Wolfendale, S & Corbett, J. (eds.)(1996) Opening Doors - Learning Support in Higher Education. Cassell, London.

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Oliver's alternative questions to assess disability statistics compared with those used by the OPCS in 1998

The OPCS survey of 1988 used a standard set of questions to obtain information about individual's impairment. Oliver (1990) has criticised the approach taken by the OPCS because the main focus of the questions was based on a medical model of disability. Oliver suggested it would be more appropriate to ask questions that focus on the societal barriers that disabled people face in their lives:

This table compares OPCS questions to Oliver's alternative questions
OPCS Oliver
Can you tell me what is wrong with you? Can you tell me what is wrong with society?
What complaint causes your difficulty in holding, gripping or turning things? What defect in the design of everyday equipment like jars, bottles and tins causes you difficulty in holding, gripping or turning them?
Are your difficulties in understanding people mainly due to a hearing problem? Are your difficulties in understanding people mainly due to their inability to communicate?
Do you have a scar, blemish or deformity which limits your daily activities? Do other people's reactions to any scar, blemish or deformity you may have limit your daily activities?
Have you attended a special school because of a long-term health problem or disability? Have you attended a special school because of your educational authority's policy of sending people with your health problem/disability to such places?
Does your health problem/disability prevent you from going out as often or as far as you would like? What is it about the local environment that makes it difficult for you to get about in your neighbourhood?
Does your health problem/disability make it difficult for you to travel by bus? Are there any transport or financial problems which prevent you from going out as often or as far as you would like?
Does your health problem/disability affect your work in any way at present? Do you have problems at work because of the physical environment or the attitudes of others?
Does your health problem/disability mean that you need to live with relatives or someone else who can help or look after you? Are community services so poor that you need to rely on relatives or someone else to provide you with the right level of personal assistance?
Does your present accommodation have any adaptations because of your poor health/disability? Did the poor design of your home mean that you had to have it adapted to suit your needs?

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Higher Education Statistics Agency : Statistics on the number of disabled students in UK higher education institutions for 1994 - 2001

Table 1. All students
Year Dyslexia Visual impairment Hearing impairment Mobility impairment Personal Care Mental Health Unseen Multiple Other Total All students % disabled students
94/95 2359 677 1144 1080 32 303 7617 750 1737 15699 592839 2.6
95/96 3170 687 1322 920 44 319 8596 629 2198 17885 574973 3.1
96/97 4364 860 1453 1545 39 546 9461 1039 2784 22091 624665 3.5
97/98 5381 858 1518 1057 60 512 10695 1195 2664 23940 622634 3.8
98/99 6575 912 1605 1292 61 724 10335 1721 3207 26432 677329 3.9
99/00 8370 930 1630 1260 70 860 8140 1870 3590 26720 677100 3.9
00/01 10430 1020 2060 1550 100 1290 8430 2015 4080 30970 755095 4.1
% increase 342.1 50.7 80.1 43.5 212.5 325.7 10.7 168.7 134.9 97.3 27.4

Table 2. Undergraduate students
Year Dyslexia Visual impairment Hearing impairment Mobility Personal Care Mental Health Unseen Multiple Other Total All students % disabled students
94/95 2112 597 985 925 30 267 6960 675 1483 14034 451840 3.1
95/96 2822 617 1118 769 37 287 7651 575 1878 15754 448199 3.5
96/97 3854 743 1233 1367 35 487 8270 943 2405 19337 491474 3.9
97/98 4737 705 1204 849 53 452 9241 1048 2197 20486 479329 4.3
98/99 5731 743 1298 1047 52 630 8756 1495 2717 22469 522887 4.3
99/00 7280 780 1300 980 60 740 6630 1630 2900 22300 525140 4.2
00/01 9025 840 1700 1270 80 1115 6690 1755 3480 25955 595155 4.4
% increase 327.3 40.7 72.6 37.3 166.7 317.6 -3.9 160.0 134.7 84.9 31.7

Table 3. Postgraduate students
Year Dyslexia Visual impairment Hearing impairment Mobility Personal Care Mental Health Unseen Multiple Other Total All students % disabled students
94/95 247 80 159 155 2 36 657 75 254 1665 140999
95/96 348 70 204 151 7 32 945 54 320 2131 126774 1.7
96/97 510 117 220 178 4 59 1191 96 379 2754 133191 2.1
97/98 644 153 314 208 7 60 1454 147 467 3454 143305 2.4
98/99 844 169 307 245 9 94 1579 226 490 3963 154442 2.6
99/00 1090 150 330 280 20 120 1510 250 690 4440 151960 2.9
00/01 1400 175 360 280 20 175 1740 260 600 5010 159935 3.1
% increase 466.8 118.8 126.4 80.6 900.0 386.1 164.8 246.7 136.2 200.9 13.4

These statistics have been obtained from the HESA website at [External link: Open in new browser window] .

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Last updated: 4 February 2003
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